Computing in/from the south call for papers

#1

The article,

Click below to read in its entirity

@befree @arianestolfi @how @efee

I’m responding to this call any interst in doing this together?


“Computing in/from the South”

Edited by Sareeta Amrute and Luis Felipe R. Murillo
Afterword by Kavita Philip and Anusuya Sengupta

A Special Section of Catalyst: Feminism, Theory, Technoscience

Computer expertise involves technical competence, infrastructures,
interdependent economies, and distinctive political projects. Yet, most
often, computing is examined from Silicon Valley outwards. In this
special issue, we reverse this polarity by asking, what does computing
expertise as political action look like from the South? Following on
John and Jean’s Comaroff’s Theory from the South (2014), the emergent
literature on the “Globalization from below” (Alba, Lins Ribeiro,
Matthews, Vega, 2015), and feminist approaches to technoscience that
stress entanglements between bodies and materials (Barad 2007, Haraway
1991, Chun 2013) and the political and economic formations such
entanglements may yield (Suchman 2015, Atanasoski and Vora 2015,
McGlotten 2016), these articles investigate what it means to
re-territorialize and prefigure technopolitical projects outside the
main axes of digital work.

Journalistic and other professional accounts of computing have helped to
create a reified depiction of an undifferentiated expert community along
class, gender, ethnicity, religion, and other socioeconomic dimensions.
Ethnographic work has contributed a different picture through the
examination of the liberal roots of various Free and Open Source
communities (Coleman 2012; Kelty 2008; Leach 2009) and by looking at the
labor of “other” experts beyond the metropolitan centers (Philip, Irani,
and Dourish 2012; Takhteyev 2012; Chan 2013; Amrute 2016). This special
section explores distinctive manifestations of technical politics in the
Global South, understood as a position in unfolding sociotechnical
relationships as much as a geopolitical location. Through computer
experts’ work and technopolitical imaginaries we ask, how might new
political forms incorporate the market logics of competitiveness,
agility, autonomy, and risk while contending with non-liberal and, at
times, anti-capitalistic dispositions? How does shifting the dominant
perspectives on computing afford an alternate view of progress and
future societies? How do models of technical innovation become tied to
state practices, public policies, expert community-building, and the
everyday labor of embodied technical work? How do practitioners ‘of the
South’ pursue feminist and queer, anti-gentrification and
free/open-source projects that might both yield viable substitute models
and intensify relations of debt and inequality for, and crucially,
within, the South?

We welcome articles that investigate computing from the standpoint of
the South — that is, from a standpoint that begins with conditions of
life outside the presumed model of computing in Silicon Valley and other
hegemonic Euro-American centers of IT development— to bring into the
purview of sociotechnical analyses computing problems of innovation and
extraction, expertise and labor, development and precarity across race,
ethnicity, gender, ability, cultural capital, and class.

Contributors might use this opportunity to examine how practices of
computing are linked to nation-making through promissory strategies
(Patel 2015), how computing from the South re-configures expert models
and infrastructures across political locations, and how practices of
refusal make their way into current imaginaries of computing (Pilar
2016, cardenas 2015). Drawing from varied modes of technical and
political engagement, articles may engage phenomena ordinarily broken up
into disciplinary topics (moral and political economy, labor, gender,
virtuality, data infrastructures, finance, discourse, political
institutions, space and place-making, globalization, embodiment, and so
on) and consider how they are held together, bracketed, obscured and
transformed in computing practices. For our purposes, we seek to
maintain a critical and transdisciplinary approach to the study of
informational capitalism that can be amplified precisely by starting
with an analysis of, and from, the South.

HOW TO CONTRIBUTE

We welcome abstracts (max. 500 words) by June 15th. By September 30th,
we will request a complete submission (max. 8.000 words) to be sent for
peer-review. The volume has no disciplinary focus: we welcome
contributions from anthropology, history, sociology, computer science
(HCI, CSCW), Science and Technology Studies (STS), etc.

To send us your contribution, write to ‘unixjazz@riseup.net’ and
‘amrutes@uw.edu’ with the following subject line: “Article for Catalyst:
Computing in/from the South”.

REFERENCES

Alba Vega, Carlos; Gustavo Lins Ribeiro; Gordon Mathews and Mario A.
Zamudio Vega. 2015. La globalización desde Abajo. La Otra Economía
mundial. Cuidad de Mexico: Fondo de Cultura.

Amrute, Sareeta. 2016. Encoding Race Encoding Class: Indian IT Workers
in Berlin. Durham: Duke University Press.

Atanasoski, Neda and Vora, Kalindi 2015. “Surrogate Humanity: Posthuman
Networks and the (Racialized) Obsolescence of Labor” Catalyst: Feminism,
Theory, Technoscience. 1(1):1-40.

Barad, Karen Michelle. 2007. Meeting the Universe Halfway: Quantum
Physics and the Entanglement of Matter and Meaning.

cardenas, micha 2015. “Shifting Futures: Digital Trans of Color Praxis”
Ada: Journal of Gender, New Media and Technology.

Chan, Anita. 2013. Networking peripheries: technological futures and the
myth of digital universalism. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Chun, Wendy Hui Kyong. 2013. Programmed Visions: Software and Memory.
Boston: The MIT Press.

Coleman, Gabriella. 2012. Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of
Hacking. Princeton University Press.

Comaroff, Jean, and John L. Comaroff. 2014. Theory from the South, Or,
How Euro-America Is Evolving toward Africa. Boulder, CO: Paradigm
Publishers.

Haraway, Donna. 1991. Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of
Nature. New York: Routledge.

Kelty, Christopher. 2008. Two Bits: The Cultural Significance of Free
Software. Durham: Duke University Press.

Leach, James. 2009. “Freedom Imagined: Morality and Aesthetics in Open
Source Software Design.” In: Ethnos, 74 (1): 51–71.

McGlotten, Shaka 2016. “Black Data” The Scholar and Feminist Online.
Traversing Technologies, Special Issue. Edited by Patrick Kellty and
Leslie Regan Shade. 13.3-14.1.

Patel, Geeta 2015. “Seeding Debt: Alchemy, Death, and the Precarious
Farming of Life-Finance in the Global South” Cultural Critique 89:1-37.

Pilar, Praba 2016. “Enigma Symbiotica” The Scholar and Feminist Online.
Traversing Technologies, Special Issue. Edited by Patrick Kellty and
Leslie Regan Shade. 13.3-14.1.

Suchman, Lucy 2015 “Situational Awareness: Deadly Bioconvergence at the
Boundaries of Bodies and Machines” MediaTropes 5(1):1-24.

Takhteyev, Yuri. 2012. Coding Places: Software Practice in a South
American City. Cambridge: MIT Press.

0 Likes

Baobáxia - The Road of Baobabs
#2

Abstract proposal

Current technology is largely promoted by an infrastructure stuck in a monolithic discursive bubble of automation based on measurement and discretisation (Antoinette Rouvroy) which consequences are as we know it deterritorialisation (Amrute) of work, destruction of solidarity networks, extractivism, and the promotion of occidental military agenda.
"To engage in these continued research efforts requires an expansion of our definitions of white supremacy to include how global flows of capital from US corporations and Silicon Valley structure labor markets and material infrastructures that are part of an oppressive system of digital technological engagements, largely hidden from view in the consumerist model of technology adoption. "

Positioning oneself is the first necessary step to take in not relying on North and South as seemingly empty signifiers, but embrassing the full scope of the situation from a history of economic domination. Confronting the destruction of cultural practices as they are fed into the productivist agenda.
However a Feminist Epistemology considers necessary principles of intra-action (Barad) looking for Apparatuses that are conceived in situation opening ways for contextual interaction. This article will focus on “knowledges” brought by otherwise left behind social groups not necessarily coming from a minority, but often exist under several axis of oppression, which explains their non consideration, as they might form a divergent viewpoint.
I will here take an subjective position in choosing to bring forward the specificities of underepresented media projects, that have been developped by and for specific communities. Rather then examining southern based projects that exist in relation to the dominant model, as Yuri Takhteyev, has explained, this article will expand on difference within the system. This analysis will present the history of important peculiar projects in free software that built infrastructure for specific comunities in Brazil, and work to understand the horizontal and emergmerging spaces they have help to build, within capitalist society. The analysis will start from presenting “Metarecyclagem” where Felipe Fonseca and others have fostered Gambiarra and HiperTropicalProgramacao throughout an important number of independant social and creative groups all over the country. And continue with Baobaxia free software eventually connected network developed to share and preserve the cultural heritage of the remaining afrobrazilian communities. A infrastructure for the Mocambos Network, among them one very specific appropriation through Tecnoxamanism has given rise to a important number of events and performances accross Brazil and Europe.
However as difficulties as political context transforms, in this paper I will also focus not only on relating from the exterior about a southern situation, but also propose to continue an intersectional observation from north to south. Relying on activism and speculative narration to conduct our messages, dealing in solidarity from north to south, sharing experiences language, strategies forming systers networks, on the model of WoC hackers:

"A power fantasy of the oppressed, we subvert traditionally-white-American-centered dystopian narratives by placing WoC hackers as superheroes willing to risk it all for solidarity (our vision of utopia)
Hackers of Resistance (2018).

References:

Barad, Karen. (2007). ‘Meeting the universe halfway: quantum physics and the entanglement of
matter and meaning.’ Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. ISBN 9780822339175…
Braidotti, Rosi. Bio-Power and Necro-Politics, Reflections on an ethics of sustainability
https://www.springerin.at/en/2007/2/biomacht-und-nekro-politik/
Published as : (2007)‘Biomacht und nekro-Politik. Uberlegungen zu einer Ethik der
Nachhaltigkeit’, in: Springerin, Hefte fur Gegenwartskunst, Band XIII Heft 2,
Fruhjahr , pp 18-23

Fonseca, Felipe. Reconhecimento e superação da exploração capitalista em redes criativas de colaboração e produção Liinc em Revista, Rio de Janeiro, v.12, n.1, p. 25-39, maio 2016, http://www.ibict.br/liinc http://dx.doi.org/10.18617/liinc.v12i1.86125

Hackers of Resistance (2018). “h0rd14r13z” Ada: A Journal of Gender, New Media, and Technology, No. 13. 10.5399/uo/ada.2018.13.6

Rouvroy, Antoinette & Berns, Thomas. (2013). ‘Gouvernementalité algorithmique et perspectives
d’émancipation’, Réseaux, no 177, p 163 .

Takhteyev, Yuri. 2012. Coding Places: Software Practice in a South
American City. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Toupin, Sophie & Spideralex (2018). “Radical Feminist Storytelling and Speculative Fiction: Creating new worlds by re-imagining hacking.” Ada: A Journal of Gender, New Media, and Technology, No. 13. 10.5399/uo/ada.2018.13.1

Umoja Noble, Safiya. “A Future for Intersectional Black Feminist Technology Studies” The Scholar and Feminist Online.Traversing Technologies, Special Issue. Edited by Patrick Kellty and
Leslie Regan Shade. 13.3-14.1.

2 Likes

#3

This is very interesting, Natacha! I’m going to be away for the weekend, but I might have a look at it next week if it’s not too late.

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#4

Deadline for abstracts in June 15!

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#5

@arianestolfi

Did you receive my message inviting for writing toguether a paper for the catalyst journal Called: Computing in/from the south.
Because you did not answer and the deadline was coming close, I sent an abstract, now Luis Felipe comes back to me asking for some rewriting, to present it in a more academic format. Wich I would real be happy to do, even more if I can do it in collaboration… Are you still not interested?

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#6

REvised Abstract proposal

Group history research object

Baobaxia, “a rota os Baobas” is an eventually connected network formed by a number of Mucuas (nodes) located in over 200 communities of the Mocambos network.
Baobaxia has been formed in the years 2004 in Brazil building Mucuas in a “digital land where culture may grow” assembling material and sharing information in the Quilombos.
My experience with the Baobaxia project comes from an active implication with the Bricolabs group in europe since the beginning of the 2000, its strong ties with Brazil, supporting community originated networks. As Baobaxia has developed further European ties, Petites Singularités is hosting one of the three European Mucuas.

  • research problematic
    Brazil is a fertile territory where a unique discourse characterises community and independant technological projects. Both the development of the language and of the networks are largely understudied, hidding the benefice of these aparatuses to a broader understanding of decentralized network, intersectional and anticolonial studies.

  • method
    A Feminist Epistemology considers necessary principles of intra-action (Barad) looking for apparatuses that are conceived in situation opening ways for contextual interaction. This article will focus on “knowledges” brought by otherwise left behind social groups who often exist under several axis of oppression, which explains their non consideration, as they might form a divergent viewpoint within, allowing for the construction of different organisations and informations preserved in their community,
    Working from a necessary distance the research will still build from direct implication of its authors who have actively contributed to the implementation of baobaxia, the study is equally nourished by interviews and interactions made by Petites singularités.
    This analysis pursues the third technoscape research led since 2017 by Petites Singularités "Singular technologies and the third technoscape"JOPP (Journal of Peer production)#11 city, 2018. Highlighting the importance of minorised technological practice that convey integrative organisational models, responding to capitalist hegemony.

  • theory
    I will here take a subjective position in choosing to bring forward the specificities of underepresented media projects, that have been developped by and for specific communities. Rather then examining southern based projects that exist in relation to the dominant model, as Yuri Takhteyev, has explained, this article will expand on difference within the system. This analysis will present the history of important peculiar projects in free software that built infrastructure for specific comunities in Brazil, and work to understand the horizontal and emergmerging spaces they have help to build, within capitalist society.

1 Like

Catalyst journal for feminist studies
#7

Thanks, Natacha, that’s a really interesting abstract and research project! The fascinating thing about Baobáxia is that working with it drags so many things with it, the cultural contexts in which it was born, the interaction between free software and social movements in Brazil, the interaction between technology and traditional knowledge as it exists in the quilombos, etc. Looking forward to hear more.

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#8

Sorry Natacha,

I saw the e-mail, but I didn’t understand the invitation, I didn’t had much time to work on baobaxia lately, though.
I could help you a bit with the contex, if you need some help for that. How are you plannig to write this, can we use overleaf or something?

I’m a bit in a rush with some other deadlines, so I can’t do too much, but untill september I may have some time, and Carten should come to Brasil soon also.

I’m working a lot on playsound.space project for my phd and may go to Berlin to present it on the end of september

:*

ariane

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#9

Hey @arianestolfi,

If not to late If youre interested and aggree with the abstract, maybe you can make a few corrections, and/or add references to Technxamanism, and we can co-sign it and refine together later.
The editors are waiting for a new version of the abstract on July 10th and I think it is important that article presenting those movements exist, that they get referenced in as many journals as possible, and I do not feel entitled to do this on my own.

Hey @agger,

Thanks for your interest and answer, I fully aggree with your point, the call comes from a feminist review, and I think community practice and feminist theory have a lot to do together, as they bothe address intersectional problematics and develop unique tools useful to the minorised part of the population, but that deserve to be understood better, such as baobaxia. This is the scope I want to take to answer this call.
Your contributions are welcome.

Heart
Natacha

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#10

QUESTIONNAIRE ABOUT TECHNOSHAMANISM.pdf (240.2 KB)

here is the interview we didi about the tecnoshamanism network in english and here in portuguese:

https://portalseer.ufba.br/index.php/metamorfose/article/view/24081/16950?fbclid=IwAR1EfrGrtSQQGFRFLGUCqCtq6Ht4_Dl4hJwZj-fPEEOiMJcDy2lbBFfgSEY

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#11

practical guide for security of females on internetguia-pratica-seguranca-cfemea.pdf (3.0 MB)

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#12

yeah of course i know this, from spider alex…
This is also useful : https://en.gendersec.train.tacticaltech.org/

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#13

Revised Abstract

In the context of current political situation in Brazil, this article cannot confine itself in an analysis of resistance networks but their authors wish their work engages more clearly with the necessity that has arised during recent Brazilian election where usage of fake news and media manipiulation was demonstrated several time, and where many resistance network emerging from women organisations have been actively silenced, we need this article to contribute to "develop the grassroots power and broad social vision that might make real change? " in a process of “globalization from below.”

Title: A feminist methodology to understand Free software territory: the
“Technoxamanismo” and “Baobaxia” network in Brazil

Abstract:
This article will discuss the process of building Free Software-based digital infrastructures for communities in the Northeast of Brazil. In the context of the misuse of centralised social networks during latest brazilian elections[1], and the resistence from feminist networks, we will support and follow the Brazilian movement Technoxamanism, and along with them, we will present them as networks are to be understood as strategies to take back the future [2]

First, we will focus on the project Baobáxia, “a rota os Baobas” an “eventually connected network” composed of a number of “Mucuas” (nodes) located in over 200 communities of the Mocambos, a network of Brazilian quilombos (freed slave communities). We will provide the background of the network and characterize their unique discourse as both the development of the language and of the networks are largely understudied, hidding the benefice of these
aparatuses to a broader understanding of decentralized network, intersectional and anticolonial studies, as a situated model of resistance.

Then, we will proceed to explore its intersections with other projects
for alternative computing in the country, such as “metarecyclagem” where
a group of Brazilian technologists and artists have been promoting the
“up-cycling” of computing technologies and their usage for artistic
expression through regular “Gambiarra” (translated as “makeshift”) and
“HiperTropicalProgramacao” events alongside several independent
technical and political collectives in the country. Another political
articulation of the reflection on the appropriation of digital
technologies has given rise to practises which are identified by local
activists and artists as “technoshamanism.”

We describe the work we conducted in the context of Baobáxia through a
series of interviews and direct participation in the activities of the
network, exploring their specificity vis-à-vis activist networks in
Europe where we are also implicated, such as the experience of bricolabs
which have been active for the past 18 years.

The research problem we will explore has to do with question of the role
and place of digital activism in the Brazilian context, and how a “third
technoscape” emerges from an anti-colonial position and cultural
narrative reappropriation, leading to the invention of “singular
technologies”. We will focus on how local “knowledges” of oppressed
Brazilian groups are translated into the formation of computer networks
and technologies that create infrastructure for Afrobrazilian communities.

Brazil is a fertile territory for new forms of technopolitics which can
be actualized by debates in intersectional and post- / anti-colonial
studies. Working from a necessary distance, the article will examine the
experience of direct implication of the authors. The analysis we pursue
highlights the importance of minorised technological practice that
convey integral organisational models opposing capitalist hegemony. In
order to frame our research problem, we will mobilize a feminist
epistemology which considers necessary principles of “intra-action”
(Barad 2007) across heterogeneous sociotechnical spaces.

Notes:
1- Caio Machado, Beatriz Kira, Gustavo Hirsch, Nahema Marchal, Bence Kollanyi, Philip N. Howard, Thomas Lederer, and Vlad Barash. “News and Political Information Consumption in Brazil: Mapping the First Round of the 2018 Brazilian Presidential Election on Twitter.” Data Memo 2018.4. Oxford, UK: Project on Computational Propaganda. comprop.oii.ox.ac.uk

2- “base de criação de conceitos, e ainda de práticas transversais, que tenta recuperar ideias de futuro perdidas no passado, #takebackthefuture.” Questionario sobre el technoxamanismo Revista Metamorfose, vol. 3, n. 1, set. de 2018, 104-120 https://tecnoxamanismo.wordpress.com/2018/06/05/questionnaire-about-technoshamanism/

References

Barad, Karen. (2007). ‘Meeting the universe halfway: quantum physics and
the entanglement of
matter and meaning.’ Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. ISBN
9780822339175

Braidotti, Rosi. Bio-Power and Necro-Politics, Reflections on an ethics
of sustainability
https://www.springerin.at/en/2007/2/biomacht-und-nekro-politik/
Published as : (2007)‘Biomacht und nekro-Politik. Uberlegungen zu einer
Ethik der
Nachhaltigkeit’, in: Springerin, Hefte fur Gegenwartskunst, Band XIII
Heft 2,
Fruhjahr , pp 18-23

Fonseca, Felipe. Reconhecimento e superação da exploração capitalista em
redes criativas de colaboração e produção Liinc em Revista, Rio de
Janeiro, v.12, n.1, p. 25-39, maio 2016,

Petites Singularités "Singular technologies and the third
technoscape"JOPP (Journal of Peer production)#11 city, February 2018

Rouvroy, Antoinette & Berns, Thomas. (2013). ‘Gouvernementalité
algorithmique et perspectives d’émancipation’, In: Réseaux, no 177, p 163.

Takhteyev, Yuri. 2012. Coding Places: Software Practice in a South
American City. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Toupin, Sophie & Spideralex (2018). “Radical Feminist Storytelling and
Speculative Fiction: Creating new worlds by re-imagining hacking.” Ada:
A Journal of Gender, New Media, and Technology, No. 13.
10.5399/uo/ada.2018.13.1

Umoja Noble, Safiya. “A Future for Intersectional Black Feminist
Technology Studies” The Scholar and Feminist Online.Traversing
Technologies, Special Issue. Edited by Patrick Kellty and Leslie Regan
Shade. 13.3-14.1.

0 Likes

#15

That’s looking nice, perhaps another reference should be the antropofagist manifest from Oswald de Andrade, it’s a text from 1922 that is super influent on brasilian culture. and on anti-colonnial spirit


here in english

I’m finishing my thesis next week, so I’m still a bit in trouble, but maybe we could talk soon

1 Like

#16

yes thanks loads, indeed I really value this textalso, I think it is super important I should not skip it.
Today I willupload a draft of the first part about language, it would be super important to have comments from all of you in brazil, @efeefe @befree,I keep on inviting fabi, but she still isn’t on the forum, and feel free to bring up other people.

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#18

Ayo!

I’m not good at writing… but I’d like to help couse I believe this is a very important work you’re doing!

I’ve read all the topic … I’m agreeing on almost everything but I feel a bit lost. Is there a main focus you’re writing on, or someway is an open investigation?

Some feelings…

It seems they belong to the past… they’re still very live :slight_smile:
also… quilombos are communities of african seized people that resisted to portuguese and european slavery and culture. Just yesterday, speaking with Layla of Casa Tainã, she made this point. It’s important to change the use of term slave, and use “enslaved human”.

I’d like to share more, maybe setting an online meeting, to sync more with you’re work.

Hugs,
Vince/befree

1 Like

#19

cool Vince @befree , its so good to hear you, this is exactly the kind of feedback that I need please tell when things are relevant or when you already thought them through and you think they are in fact different.

The goal here is to present those 3 projects not by by asking whether they where a success or not, but by explaining that they take a completely different perspective on technology by encompassing language, community knowledge and social organization problematics. This approach works for liberation rather then commodification (another servitude), and feminist theory has developed many concepts and research that can apply to this assertion. In fact feminist theory is a great tool to explain the ties that actual social organization uses to bind us to capitalism, that derives directly from white male patriarchal organisation, via religious and economic organisation justifying slavery.

Reason I started this with @arianestolfi , is because first I found the call for papers very interesting, and I know the editors are of good will, then, I realized there was no analysis of those projects from this perspective, I think are very unique, they managed to happen because of a very precise alliance of conditions, and it is very import to report on them so that people get largely aware of this existing possibility and to continue support them.

But to make any thing that has any validity I very much need the feed back from all of you, please correct input criticize its all welcome.

1 Like

#20

Hey Vince, we could set up an audio meeting, but I think it’s important that comments come in writing rather than by voice otherwise they get lost. We could record audio and transcript as well, but this has to come to the written form at some point. The delay is also very short.

We have a mumble room at gnunet.org called PUBLIC that’s waiting for us, otherwise a Jitsi channel at https://meet.jit.si/bbx. In both cases, being able to record sound would be best.

I’m not sure I get this formulation. I do understand what it means (people kidnapped in Africa and enslaved) but it’s not as explicit as what I just put in parenthesis.

0 Likes

#21

Title: A feminist methodology to understand Free software territory:

“Technoxamanismo” and “Baobaxia” networks in Brazil

intro: take back the future

“Take back the future” is the keyword that popped up while reading different documents and communications coming from the very active independent Brazilian networks that have been serving Singular Technologies in association with spaces of resistance, we mean intentional and contextual technologies. “The concepts of Third-TechnoScape and Singular Technologies stem from the need to characterize daily practice by citizen groups that deploy their successful institutional arrangements and afordances under the radar and outside the competency of traditional institutions. Both concepts do not try to define any tangible essence, but rather articulate social dynamics of the studied groups.”[1] We qualify these social dynamics as the unique relation that technological processes emerge from. Decentralized technological infrastructures are diverse, they develop along different paths, and Singular Technologies multiply across the world, their hybridization with a community or a place, settles a space of resistance, another relation technology. The uniqueness of those Brazilian projects reside in their alliance with communities, in a hybrid trans-disciplinary methodology at a determined moment of Brazil’s politics.

As it appears that the dominant centralized corporate technological model, deploys a monopolistic power over our communication infrastructure, resulting in the argument of scale often opposed to decentralized free software and independent projects, opposing them that they are underdeveloped and cannot face the competition of tech giants. However, in this article we will approach this issue with a different perspective addressing how Singular Technologies converge with community organization creating a unique terrain for identity construction, resistance, expression and solidarity, that contrast with the dominant perspective that takes for granted the superiority of proprietary technology development, where the latter cannot create anything like the initiatives under focus. From a feminist perspective these initiatives address the necessary engagement with context and express consideration given to the tool. A Feminist Epistemology considers necessary principles of intra-action (Barad) looking for apparatuses that are conceived in situation opening ways for contextual interaction. This article will focus on “knowledges” brought by otherwise left behind social groups. These groups do not necessarily come from a minority but, as they exist under several axis of oppression, might form a divergent viewpoint and are thus generally not considered.

This analysis will present the history of important projects in free software that built infrastructure for specific communities in Brazil, and work to understand the horizontal and emerging spaces they have help to build, within capitalist society. In the light of the very important historical Manifesto Antropófago [2] we will consider their antropophagist organization. The research problem we will explore concerns the question of the role and place of digital activism in the Brazilian context, and how a Third-Technoscape emerges from an anti-colonial position and cultural narrative re-appropriation, leading to the invention of Singular Technologies. We will focus on how local “knowledges” of oppressed Brazilian groups are translated into the formation of computer networks and technologies that create infrastructure for Afrobrazilian communities. this research will focus on 3 projects Metaracyclagem, Baobaxia, Technochamanism (Tcnxsm). Those 3 projects expand in time from the beginning of the 2000’s to actual Brazil, they were especially active and dynamic during the first decenial of the century as there was explicit support to independant systems of communication.

  • Baobaxia
    Baobaxia associates specific cultural and traditional notions of communication to the idea of a digital network aiming to characterize it as a tool belonging to its community composed and formulated as such, and moreover as a instrument of resistance: “Uma Rede de Servidores Locais - a roda de conversa com o tema Baobáxia na Rota dos Baobás” [3]
    Baobáxia has implemented with Rede Mocambos more than 200 servers, a rota dos baobabs (“the route of baobabs”) in Brazilian Quilombos [4] all over the country, implementing a Git-based decentralized free software, that functions as an eventually connected network, allowing the communities to share their media and information independently. Each implementation of a mucua (node of the network named after the fruit of the Baobab) is assorted to a community oriented workshop, presenting and sharing the technology in a horizontal model.

  • Metareciclagem
    Metareciclagem is a network that was active mostly between 2002 and 2012, who got important for the governmental project of puntos da cultura, and was also linked to the protest movement lixo electronico both projects were co.founded by Felipe Fonseca. Metareciclagem has organised the creative upcycling and reuse of discarded computers to the benefit of a number of citizen groups, promoting not only free software but mostly creative appropriation of electronics as “Gambiarra” (Fonseca, 2015) by reusing, recreating, coloring, or any other mean people could think of.

  • Technochamanism
    Tcnxsm is another network that positions itself in resistance, it is dystopian and pessimistic, but yet entropic as it resonates creating noise in this dystopian future, take back the future. Tcnxsm is a network, that builds from existing projects, targeted towards autonomy but considering autonomy as a pathway a process that never really achieves since everything is always connected.“ Technoshamanism is neither the beginning nor the end, it is a medium.” Tcnxsm is a space of articulation, a network, (Borges 2017).

In this research we will concentrate on the conceptualization of those Singular Technologies and their specific ideological approach, starting from a long term observation of the projects in perspective, a personal connection to their participants in Brazil and via autonomous free-software European networks such as Bricolabs, and also an analysis of the important documentation recorded on the projects websites and wiki, where participatory methodology of development has been carefully documented.
Indeed all three projects are related, as they are intertwined to a specific moment of Brazilian history where support was given to free software and multidimensional cultural projects by the former ministry of culture, Gilberto Gil (who is also famous musician, and a key figure of Tropicalia avant-garde movement of the 60’s), however they do not happen and continue existing exactly in the same ways, and they also each have specific relations to Europe, among other places via the transnational network Bricolabs.

Hybridity is their main characterization and strength, all come from the cross breeding of a culture of resistance manifesting itself through language, cultural appropriation, a spiritual quest and a desire for independent infrastructure. As we will go we will observe how they successfully put in practice the savage tradition of absorbing, cannibalizing occidental technologies, taking back the future by “rooting technology” a double-entendre: first, “rooting” as in growing roots, with reference to locality ; then, “rooting” as the hacker jargon for gaining privileged access to a system, here: re-appropriating technology production., and acknowledging ancient history, this in the scope of those project implies several levels of action, that this analyse will group in 2 parts:

  • Language appropriation
    Using appropriate language for their projects Baobaxia, Tcnxsm, and Metareciclagem have treated a dedicated language for their technologies and technological practice, a language they dream more appropriate because it fits better their knowledges and conception of communication.
  • Cultural coherence, Those three projects present on the cultural coherence of their appropriation of technology insisting that this is the essential meaning of taking back the future as it associate contemporary technology to ancestral knowledges. resulting in the construction of a specific Infrastructure, Third Technoscape understood as an active pathway.

The movement has started at the beginning of the 2000, a little bit before Lula’s presidency where he appointed Gilberto Gil, active participant to the Tropicalism movement, (an important critical cultural movement of the 60’s in Brazil) as ministry of culture. At this moment in time, worldwide, there was a desire to “bridge the digital gap” and bring connectivity “everywhere”; in Brazil, the size of the territory, the importance of every specific knowledge, the number of the communities, made for a very unique terrain to develop connectivity. In the supportive political context, free software was promoted in the context of “Puntos da Cultura”, a program to bring connectivity in remote communities through dedicated sites. Involved in this challenging movement Metareciclagem, and Baobaxia contributed to the program, among others with Casa da Cultura de Taína, developing Gambiarra computing and decentralized “eventually connected networks” all over the country. We will be looking at the organizational choices of they made, and consider their position as one of resistance, acknowledging that the systemic support they received is negligible compare to tha one receive by any major company.

LANGUAGE a PROCESS of ABSORPTION

As N K Hayles has framed it: “Language alone is no longer the distinctive characteristic of technologically developed societies; rather it is language plus code”[5], she calls this: regimes of computation. Therefore she claims, language analysis and critic needs to embed technology in the different ways that it materializes. In Brazil, Singular Technologies have an anthropófagic approach, they manage to achieve a differentiated formulation of key concepts about networks and digital technologies, both by renaming the concepts and the elements of the network and reorganizing the network itself, to a decentralized model, as well as the code and its modalities.
Relatedly, Pohlhaus (2012) has argued that marginalized subjects are in a better position to notice gaps in our collective epistemic resources in order to properly describe and conceptualize the experiences of those who are socially oppressed. "I develop an understanding of willful hermeneutic ignorance, which occurs when dominantly situated knowers refuse to acknowledge epistemic tools developed from the experienced world of those situated marginally. Such refusals allow dominantly situated knowers to misunderstand, misinterpret, and/or ignore whole parts of the world " [6]

Singular Technologies share modalities that do not only differ in their organization and coding language. A Technoscape as other landscapes, qualifies from many different points of view, as in technology, language is a specific part of those many aspects, as well as other forms of cultural significance such as time place/localization, the projects we study here are built from the concepts of “situated knowers”, every element comes from principles that are key to those who relate to the Technologies, they also significantly rename concepts and tools, transforming the relation to technology in a community centered process, a Singular Technology eventually forming a 3rd Technoscape.

The Baobaxia project is rooted in a specific the use of ancestral knowledges and concepts by communities pertaining to Rede Mocambos: a network of Quilombos. Quilombos are communities of African seized people that resisted to Portuguese and European slavery and culture. The presentation of the project on Baobaxia website begins by a complete renaming of all the elements composing a network, this renaming is essential to the structure of the project, it is based on a language that is true to the Quilombos organization, functioning as building blocks to the service of their resistance carried over the centuries. The project’s wiki, serves as the main documentation tool for the project, umerous workshops events technical meetings, reports, funding quests etc… are reported, including report of the assemblies, one can read:
“Some of the themes of the conversation wheels were the Principles and Reflections on the Mocambos Network - at this time the speeches were oriented around the name Mocambos and the technology of the drum; the form of organization of the Quilombo dos Palmares was in Mocambos, so called their houses. Another symbolic element, the Baobá, was in the middle of the wheel; the philosophy of the Baobá and the drum are central to the Mocambos Network: they are at the service of humanity, offer meaning to the world and strengthen a political commitment: never stop fighting.” “Pajelança do dia 27 de maio e 3 de Junho de 2013 IV encontro da rede Mocambos” [7]

Felipe Fonseca who was central to Metareciclagem, also proposed to rework language. He used the popular concept of “Gambiarra”(Fonseca, 2015), meaning refurbishing, in a unique and creative popular environment. Specifically he meant: creatively appropriating devices otherwise discarded by the mainstream products, an idea that was later grabbed in the upcycling movement. However, not only did “Gambiarra” meant repairing and enhancing objects and machines, but doing so thanks to collective effort, in communities and free software, invention and creativity. Here again the choice of the term “Gambiarra” is not hazardous but corresponds to a valorization of popular Brazilian culture that creatively deals with material defections, therefore adds intimate and personal value to objects, and most importantly integrates this process in a social and community based process.

As Hayles explores the impact of code on everyday life, she argues that it has become comparable to that of speech and writing: language and code have grown more entangled, the lines that once separated humans from machines, analog from digital, and old technologies from new ones have become blurred. While this can be seen as a colonization of everyday life led by major telecommunication companies, Singular Technologies engage in activating differently this space of knowledge. In this prospect, the claim raised by Fabi Borges, main researcher of the Tecnoshamanism (Tcnxsm) network, to practice Ancestrofuturismo (Borges 2016), is bridging the timeline from ancestral knowledges to actual technological practice. In the Tcnxsm network, Fabi Borges asserts shamanism as a technology of knowledge production based on ancestral models of communication. She argues that Tcnxsm builds on these ancestral technologies of communication, and pairs them to contemporary digital technologies. In order to reach her purpose she looks for entropic interferences and noise that recombine to bring forth a “Shamanic Ontology” to technological production rather then as she calls it “Capitalist Ontology”. She says “and it is entropic because it inhabits this paradoxical set of forces and maintains an improbable noise – its perpetual noisecracy, its state of disorganization and insecurity is continuous and is constantly recombining itself.” (Borges, 2016) She brings this recombination of language to the larger scope of concepts, and ontologies, affirming a resistance across time and places, in a hybrid process that inhabits many spaces.

All 3 projects are active in decolonizing language, a process they run in parallel to decolonization of technology, the later is characterized by the use of free software and decentralized infrastructure, this analysis will be developed further. Both processes are complimentary, constitutive and intrinsic to the project, it feels that such a throughout process cannot be justified by the sole necessity to respond to a lack of infrastructure, or a specific situation of some isolated communities. On the contrary, these projects are born from an encompassing tentative to remodel technology from needs and knowledges of these communities and they have developed unique hybrid infrastructures where social organization actively differs from existing social organization of technologies, led by monopolistic corporations. All three networks build Singular Technologies of resistance, creating space for a third Technoscape that is activated by the communities, their knowledges, through an active process of appropriation, and structural support from the state in the context of Puntos da Cultura. While the implementation of Puntos da cultura in Brazil has sometimes been criticized for bringing the “worst of the Internet” despite proposing computers installed with free software (Foster 2008), the approach that those three networks took is contrary, as they started from the communities themselves. Baobaxia directly associated inhabitants and included their local process of governance as documented on the baobaxia wiki in the reports available on their wiki. Metareciclagem, developed processes that were not only attached to rede Mocambos, Felipe Fonseca explains very well the process and its close relation to puntos da Cultura in a Lift presentation from 2013 [8], where he emphasizes that some principles were set in collaboration with ministry of culture about principles such as, primacy of culture over technology, use of free software and open licences, easy accessibillity and active education. In the context of metarecliclagem, art and culture are constitutive advocated video documentation still available on you tube present the creative and educational process as a primary motivation, and motor for “Gambiarra” [9]

In those projects, decolonization of language are speech acts (Austin, 1962), decolonization of language functions there as performative utterances, affirmative in their cannibalistic approach. They embed a different relation in the existing technology. Important specific concepts pertaining to the domain of communication are not represented, therefore rendered difficult to use in the contemporary technological domain, significant areas of social experience are obscured from collective understanding of technology, such as ancestral indigenous conception of social organization and of consciousness. While all 3 projects value the relational and communication modalities presented in indigenous communities Tcnxsm is particularly clear in stating the ground fact that shamanism is a communication technology. Explaining Ancestrofuturismo, Fabi Borges says that indigenous knowledges have been riped out, she argues following Silvia Federici in her book Caliban and the Witch that “there has been a violent destruction of ancestral knowledge and technologies to leave space for science following monotheist principles.”[10] Furthermore the collusion between technological intervention and the reformulation of contextual interaction has been addressed by feminists who explain that some parts of society, have been obscured from language by simply underusing or devaluating their vocabulary, overtime denying the epistemic authority of these communities. By reassessing the relation using ancestrofuturismo, Fabi Borges formulates a diffracting relation (Barad 2007), in the sense that she brings the history of technology on other terrains, allowing for an intraction modulating ancestrofuturistisc relations based on ancestral knowledges. Breaking the sense of continuity, (re)configuring the relation to space and time by developing ancestrofuturisc modalities, Ancestrofuturismo asks to rethink with and through Dis-Contuinity. This approach diffracts various temporalities and places, across the spectrum of time and space, and therefore allows us to reconfigure the scenes, from a large set of perspectives, read them through one another, and thread through one another. “Faced with this, techno + shamanism is an articulation which tries to consider this historical trauma, these lost yet not annihilated leftovers, and to recover (and reinvent) points of connection between technology and wasted ontologies,” (Borges 2016)

All 3 networks are therefore primarily cultural processes based on a form of re-apropriation very true to the Brazilian principle of Canibalist Theory. Starting there endeavor from Language, all 3 networks activate different community organization and resistance models, producing diffracting and decentralized intra-actions. The 3 projects studied here, produce a form of conceptual engineering, that aim to revise current concepts and organize technologies that can better serve resistances; reconfiguring their capacity through active use of ancestral language, and communication practices in dedicated decentralized networks.

CULTURAL COHERENCE IS LEADING INFRASTRUCTURE, DECENTRALIZED TECHNOLOGY A CHOICE MADE FOR COLLECTIVE ORGANIZATION.

All three projects understand decentralization as a technological process inclusive of a dedicated decisional process that follows different models of “Re-appropriation” (Fonseca 2016), and where the links to historical modalities of resistance and community organization are preserved and worked as a model of decision making for the technology.
They have made distinctive choices, forming new concepts, in the light of ancestral and community organization adapting existing technical possibilities inclusive of the ones discarded by tech monopolies. They develop decentralized server projects for their communities, but also unique eventually connected networks such as Baobaxia, implementing participatory management of servers in communities, associating technological build up to a ritualized event, reassembling technologies, exposing immense possibilities of underused technologies, transforming the usage of standard tools. They have worked out a number of technological processes at the scale of active resistance, that associate technical uniqueness to a specific cultural expression and a model of resistance. We will analyze here the technical choices and their entanglement to a specific culture and a history of resistance. We will finally propose that the specific affirmations made by those networks … to form an alternative to populism.

DECENTRALIZATION

Decentralization has many implications, from the technical point of view it is a solution to existing problems caused by the accumulation of power in centralized monopolist tech companies, but in the experiences described here are not limited to technical choices, they do not suffice, and Singular Technologies build on many other organization capacities to form a Third Technoscape.
Decentralized software means that each instance of the software is hosted on a different server (each of them situated physically in a proxi or remote relation to the community or person(s) using the service), meaning that each hosting place, person or community organizes and determines the condition of usage of its instance of the software differently, sometimes determining clear criteria, and governance.
Decentralized technologies should be associated to community organization, but sometimes they are blind to this possibility and by building on existing infrastructure and cloud services they do not actively think about ways to reconfigure existing distribution of power in technology. While decentralization has been a major trend in the last few years, it is scarcely discussed as a possibility for a reorganization of technological practice. In this scope, the conversation needs not only to be technical as, decentralized infrastructure also implies a distributed system of decision making, and according accountability and responsibility.

Therefore decentralization allows for a diversity of identities and models of governance to happen, and coherently with the necessity of organizing the modalities of a network, decentralization needs a determined format of network organization to organize the communication between nodes and make for a useful technology.
In practical technical terms the organization of decentralization can happen along 2 major different modalities:

  • Federation, where instances can be federated sharing information such as notifications according to agreed protocols of communication between the different instances, in this case each instance will then be able to display an interface presenting information from the federated network of instances. The orientation of such an network is difficult to change as it is inscribed in a preliminary agreed protocol.
  • Peer to Peer networks where each node of the network is both downloading and servicing information to the network, making for a very resilient network,where any node can replace a missing one. It is difficult to search such a network without a centralized information base.

Tcnxsm Metareciclagem and Baobaxia, all have experienced decentralization technologies in many different modalities, decentralized servers, mesh networks, eventually connected networks, using both peer to peer and federated networks, always in consideration of relevant social organization and modalities of re-appropriation. Most importantly they have developed unique technologies such as the previously mentioned eventually connected network: Baobaxia. Baobaxia is a social media based on Git: a very important and otherwise widely used software, that deals with version control for large software development projects. The usage that Baobaxìa makes of Git as a basis for a social media software, is unique and very adapted to the context of the Quilombos, where access to network and electricity can be scarce. Using git as a basis, permits that users locally upload media to the “mucuas” without needing connectivity, when they do have connection they can share it to the rest of the Baobaxia federation, this way of programming is uniquely responding to the needs of remotely situated Quilombos, it has been implemented in collaboration with important local social centers part of Rede mocambos, such as Casa Taína, during dedicated workshops that took place in the different Quilombos engaging inhabitants and their local organization in a reflection on a specific practice of technology, related to the history of Quilombos; where preserving culture and organising life has been done since centuries hidding away from the oppressor. Indeed, the relation to visibility and invisibility is crucial to the history of Quilombos.

Transformative practice and affirmative resistance are the contexts set here, decentralization and the specific eventually connected network proposed by Baobaxia sitting at the fringes of mainstream technological model, freecycling its hardware components in Gambiarra and autonomizing its technology, organizing dedicated decision making processes through workshop happening in each of the 200 nodes of the network, defining its own network and proposing unique community produced media. However, complete autonomy does not exist and even less in technological domains or media practice, while the model situates itself in the context of occidental domination, it also exists in line with centuries of invisibleness and active resistance of the Quilombos, the millenial culture of indigenous people, and active resistance of other people involved, who despite minorisation have maintained their voices and a strong and unique culture.

DIFFRACTION AND RESONANCES

Making for a very notable start, they all affirm non linearity by claiming to be networks “redes” rather then software or localized community projects, for example Fabi Borges explains in an interview[11]: “Tcnxsm is a network, it does not develop specific projects but builds from existing projects, Baobaxia is one of them. But Tcnxsm works many technologies, from radio to alternative electricity production, targeted towards autonomy; although considering autonomy as a pathway, a process that never really achieves since everything is always connected.” By this positioning not only do they set the ground for a differential model of organization a Third Technoscape, but they also foster, put in first place, autonomy of the elements of the networks and the relation between network and cultural organization, allowing for technology to be transformed by cultural practice and become a transformative practice.
“Technoshamanism is neither the beginning nor the end, it is a medium.” Tcnxsm is a space of articulation, a network.

Tcnxsm puts in question occidental civilization from its ontologies, and revokes as much the spiritual monotheist experience as much as the notion of a strict separation between species, humans and elements. It situates itself in the free culture movement and advocates for a new domain in the free culture movement, the cosmogony. In the article about ancestrofuturismo Fabi Borges explains that by affirming this she understand free culture as “liberated culture”.
This is only one aspect of the cultural positioning of Tcnxsm that of an interdisciplinary network participating to a number of domains, an open platform that aggregates different "knowledges"and environments to produce resonances within actual capitalist society.

While Subaltern studies have managed to form an occidental based critical group, the issue of fighting from a minorized perspective is far from solved, as Hamid Dabashi “Our resources do not allow us a direct narrative confrontation. We would lose. If we won, we would only replace a categorical theocracy with a conceptual monarchy. So what we need is a permanent revolution”[12]. “we” is here is to be understood from the perspective of critical thinking person, and Hamid Dabashi further develops saying that it should happen on the terrain of the subalterns/minorized.

Decentralization in technologies is a self explanatory model for this situation, where each entity hosts its communication infrastructure and defines specific models for its usage and practice ensuring the appropriation of a specific model for permanent fight and permanent revolution.

INDEPENDENT ORGANIZATION INDEPENDENT LEARNING AS A TOOL TO APPROACH POPULISM CRITICALLY

Each project presented deploys its own understanding of technology, envisionning different type of functionalities, scopes of application, and relations to the government, however they all identify with free software, and associate the notion of freedom not only to publishing the source code, but also to creating technology that is of liberation, we will utterly develop the different meanings of this assertion.

In the Baobaxia methodology/spirit congruence between accurate physicality of the encounter and accurate construction of the digital archive is promoted throughout the whole process, this translates into the project being discussed during encounters/pajelança that folow the models of governance and organisation of the communities themselves, pajelança are indigenous rituals, from the program displayed on baobaxia wiki, we see that technical workshops were organised among other subjects and equally to them. The reports make clear, all participants are described by the name used and function within their community, the reports also describe specific ritual practices and important discussions about quilombolas identity and their relation to technical processes, for example:
"During the rounds of conversations and openings of the days, the relationship between ancestry and technology was deepened in the perception of the appropriation of technology as one of the tools for the diffusion of quilombola and community contributions. "
"Durante as rodas de conversas e aberturas dos dias, a relação ancestralidade e tecnologia foi aprofundada na percepção da apropriação da tecnologia como uma das ferramentas para a difusão das contribuições quilombolas e comunitárias. "
the work led during those encounters also focuses on very important political issues such as sustainability where community sustainability and larger ecological issues are entangled and technology is envisioned in relation to both, making for important political discussions.

In addition, care is taken to publish online the reports in their integrality, including the many interventions of different nature, this demonstrates how the attention is put to build and deploy a technology that converges with all existing reflections in the comunity, being atuned not only with existing models of community organisation, but also with political revendication and ll the reports archived on the wiki of the organisation would it be thinking of governance issues such as collective reflection on the space of the encounter.

“In the sacred presence of the Baobab, which represents our African roots, TC draws attention to the importance of spirituality and passes the word to Mother Beth of Oxum, of Olinda, to pass on the axé, the spiritual strength, the communication. She sang a song for Ossanha, accompanied by the drums. She remembered the importance of strength through the leaves, because we are around the Baobab. He also did a song for Oxum and Yemanjá.”
“Na presença sagrada do Baobá, que representa as nossas raízes africanas, TC chama a atenção para a importância da espiritualidade e passa a palavra à Mãe Beth de Oxum, de Olinda, para passar o axé, a força espiritual, a comunicação. Ela cantou um canto para Ossanha, acompanhada pelos tambores. Lembrou da importância da força pelas folhas, pois estamos ao redor do Baobá. Fez ainda um canto para Oxum e para Yemanjá.”

"Uma Rede de Servidores Locais - a roda de conversa com o tema Baobáxia na Rota dos Baobás**, se debruçou sobre o projeto que vai estruturar uma rede de comunicação comunitária através de servidores locais , que inicialmente serão instalados em algumas comunidades para que se possa aprofundar o desenvolvimento do sistema e, a longo prazo, integrar todas as comunidades da rede Mocambos que poderão trocar conteúdo sem depender exclusivamente da internet. "

Positioning oneself is the first necessary step to take in not relying on North and South as seemingly empty signifiers, but embracing the full scope of the situation from a history of economic domination. Confronting the destruction of cultural practices as they are fed into the productivist agenda.

Baobaxia has been thought from scratch as a tool allowing to render visible history of quilombolos and mestisos, and to do such differentiating from the rising evangelist movement that has an important public visibility and promotes a severely restricted ideology.

"Mãe Beth questiona: por que os professores não foram capacitados para ensinar a história da África? Há pesquisa em povos de terreiro, os doutores passam por lá, por que não chega onde deve chegar? Falou que é importante separar relação pessoal e histórica (política) entre evangélicos e religiões de matriz afro. Os conflitos se dão localmente. "
https://wiki.mocambos.net/index.php/Núcleos_de_Formação_Continuada#Relat.C3.B3rio_Resumido_Pajelan.C3.A7a_do_dia_27_de_Maio_e_3_de_Junho_de_2013
[1] Petites Singularités “Singular Technologies and the Third-Technoscape” JOPP (Journal of Peer production)#11 city, February 2018, http://peerproduction.net/editsuite/issues/issue-11-city/experimental-format/singular-technologies-the-third-technoscape/

[2] Oswald de Andrae, Manifesto Antropófago, Em Piratininga, Ano 374 da Deglutição do Bispo Sardinha, (Revista de Antropofagia, Ano I, No. I, maio de 1928.) http://www.ufrgs.br/cdrom/oandrade/oandrade.pdf

[3] [4]https://wiki.mocambos.net/index.php/NPDD/Baobáxia (last seen 07/02/2019)

[5] Hayles ref

[6] Polhaus ref

[7] "Alguns dos temas das rodas de conversa foram os Princípios e Reflexões sobre a Rede Mocambos - neste momento as falas foram orientadas em torno do nome Mocambos e da tecnologia do tambor; a forma de organização do Quilombo dos Palmares era em Mocambos, assim chamavam suas moradias. Outro elemento simbólico, o Baobá, esteve no meio da roda; a filosofia do Baobá e do tambor são centrais na Rede Mocambos: estão a serviço da humanidade, oferecem sentido ao mundo e fortalecem um compromisso político: nunca mais deixar de lutar."Introduction to the Pajelança Quilombólica Digital, Territorios Digitais Livres - Materia da TVB - Record (Abril 2015) referenced on https://wiki.mocambos.net/index.php/NPDD/Baobáxia#Pajelan.C3.A7a_Quilomb.C3.B3lica_Digital.2C_Territorios_Digitais_Livres_-Materia_da_TVB-Record.28Abril_2015.29 (last seen 27/02/2019)

[8]https://vimeo.com/16886067 (last seen 07/02/2019)

[9] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OLZhWpskek4

[10][11] Source: Em Rede – http://www.em-rede.com/site/entrevista/fabiane-m-borges-tecnoxamanismo-como-meio-de-recuperar-e-reinventar-pontos-de-conexão (last seen 07/01/2019)

[12] Em Rede – http://www.em-rede.com/site/entrevista/fabiane-m-borges-tecnoxamanismo-como-meio-de-recuperar-e-reinventar-pontos-de-conexão (last seen 07/01/2019)
[13] "Nos ressources ne nous permettent pas une confrontation narrative directe. Nous perdrions. Si nous gagnions, nous ne ferions que remplacer une théocratie catégorique par une monarchie conceptuelle. Ce qu’il nous faut donc, c’est une révolution permanente. "
Dabashi Hamid, « Je ne suis pas subalterniste », Tumultes, 2010/2 (n° 35), p. 215-235. DOI : 10.3917/tumu.035.0215. URL : https://www.cairn.info/revue-tumultes-2010-2-page-215.htm

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#22

In https://www.scuttlebutt.nz/talks, a mention is made of a Quilombola:

Scuttlebutt has a large community of users who together develop the platform. Completely open-source there are many initiatives of projects, maintenance and initiatives as part of the Scuttlebutt ecosystem. Some of these projects range from local community on-boarding by @luandro in Quilombola - Brazil, git-ssb by @cel, or a chess interface!

SecureScuttleButt (SSB) certainly is a candidate for future implementations of Baobaxia. BBX over SSB would indeed bring BBX to new heights, building up on proven crypto and offline-first connectivity.

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